[leish-l] Fwd: Articles found by RefScout 13/07/05 - 28/2005

jeffreyj at usp.br jeffreyj at usp.br
Thu Jul 21 09:36:03 BRT 2005

    Date: Wed, 13 Jul 2005 03:16:59
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This is RefScout-Newsletter 28/2005.

REQUEST: [ leishmaniasis ]

(16 articles match this request)

PMID: 15979656

TITLE: Time-specific ecological niche modeling predicts spatial dynamics of
vector insects and human dengue cases.

AUTHORS: A Townsend Peterson, Carmen Martínez-Campos, Yoshinori Nakazawa,
Enrique Martínez-Meyer

AFFILIATION: Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center, University
of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.

REFERENCE: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2005 Sep 99(9):647-55

Numerous human diseases-malaria, dengue, yellow fever and leishmaniasis
, to name a few-are transmitted by insect vectors with brief life cycles
 and biting activity that varies in both space and time. Although the 
general geographic distributions of these epidemiologically important 
species are known, the spatiotemporal variation in their emergence and 
activity remains poorly understood. We used ecological niche modeling 
via a genetic algorithm to produce time-specific predictive models of 
monthly distributions of Aedes aegypti in Mexico in 1995. Significant 
predictions of monthly mosquito activity and distributions indicate that
 predicting spatiotemporal dynamics of disease vector species is 
feasible; significant coincidence with human cases of dengue indicate 
that these dynamics probably translate directly into transmission of 
dengue virus to humans. This approach provides new potential for 
optimizing use of resources for disease prevention and remediation via 
automated forecasting of disease transmission risk.

PMID: 15975718

TITLE: Importance of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the dynamics of transmission of
canine visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Porteirinha Municipality,
Minas Gerais, Brazil.

AUTHORS: João C França-Silva, Ricardo A Barata, Roberto T da Costa, Erika
Michalsky Monteiro, George L L Machado-Coelho, Edvá P Vieira, Aluisio Prata,
Wilson Mayrink, Evaldo Nascimento, Consuelo L Fortes-Dias, Jaime C da Silva,
Edelberto S Dias

AFFILIATION: Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

REFERENCE: Vet Parasitol 2005 Aug 131(3-4):213-20

A study of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: 
Psychodidae), the primary vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL
), and the canine form of the disease, was carried out in Porteirinha. 
The city is situated in the northern part of the Brazilian State of 
Minas Gerais and is an endemic area of AVL. Systematic phlebotomine 
captures were performed in seven districts with previously reported 
cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, during 2 years (January 2000-
December 2001). A total of 2328 specimens of L. longipalpis were 
captured. The association between the local climate variables and the 
population density of L. longipalpis was evaluated and rainfall was 
determined to be a major factor, with increased populations during the 
rainy season (October-March). At the same time period, blood samples 
from every dog domiciled in the same seven districts, in total 14,077 
animals, were analyzed for infection by viscerotropic Leishmania using 
indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Accumulated incidence rates of 
canine VL per district varied from 3.40 to 14.34 for the 2-year period. 
A positive correlation between the population density of L. longipalpis 
and the canine cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Porteirinha was 

PMID: 15967576

TITLE: Canine visceral leishmaniasis in São José de Ribamar, Maranhão State,

AUTHORS: K S Guimarães, Z S Batista, E L Dias, R M S N C Guerra, A D C Costa, A
S Oliveira, K S Calabrese, F O Cardoso, C S F Souza, T Zaverucha do Vale, S C
Gonçalves da Costa, A L Abreu-Silva

AFFILIATION: Curso de Especialização em Ciências Básicas e da Saúde UFMA,

REFERENCE: Vet Parasitol 2005 Aug 131(3-4):305-9

Here, we describe the situation of canine visceral leishmaniasis in two 
villages of São José de Ribamar in Maranhão State/Brazil, where human
 cases have been registered. Blood samples of 36 household crossbred 
dogs from Sergio Tamer village and 43 dogs from Quinta village were 
collected and the serum used for serological diagnosis. An Indirect 
Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (
ELISA) were used to detect antibodies against Leishmania. The clinical 
examination showed that 25% of the canine population of Quinta presented
 a poor body condition and in 39%, ectoparasites (ticks and fleas) were 
detected. In both tests, serology revealed that 21% (9 out of 43) of the
 dogs presented antibodies against Leishmania (55% were asymptomatic and
 45% were symptomatic). In the Vila Sérgio Tamer, 25% (9 out of 36) of 
the dogs were seropositive for Leishmania (66.67% were asymptomatic and 
33.33% were symptomatic), 33% presented poor body condition, and 22% 
have ectoparasites. The clinical signs more frequent were skin lesions. 
The statistical analysis showed that there was no statistical difference
 (p>0.05) between the seropositivity of the dogs from the two villages. 
The same was observed when the clinical signs were compared (p>0.05). 
Both villages have favorable conditions to maintain the cycle of 

PMID: 16000412

TITLE: Evaluation of PCR for diagnosis of Indian kala-azar and assessment of

AUTHORS: R Maurya, R K Singh, B Kumar, P Salotra, M Rai, S Sundar

AFFILIATION: Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine,
Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, 6 SK Gupta, Nagar,
Lanka, Varanasi 221 005, India. shyam_vns at sify.com.

REFERENCE: J Clin Microbiol 2005 Jul 43(7):3038-41

This study was done to evaluate PCR with Ld1 primers for the diagnosis 
of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and to assess its role in 
prediction of the disease outcome. The PCR assay was performed with DNA 
isolated from the peripheral blood of parasitologically confirmed cases 
of VL before the initiation of treatment, just after the end of 
treatment, and at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. The pretreatment PCR 
result was positive for 100 of 101 patients (sensitivity, 99%; 
confidence interval [CI], 94 to 100%). None of the 150 negative controls
 tested were PCR positive (specificity, 100%; CI, 96.8 to 100%). Of 60 
patients who were treated at our center, 51 (85%; CI, 73 to 93%) became 
negative immediately after treatment and continued to be negative at 3 
and 6 months of follow-up. At the 3-month follow-up, two of the 
remaining nine patients were PCR positive, making 58 (96.7%; CI, 87 to 
100%) patients PCR negative. At the 6-month follow-up, all patients 
became PCR negative. One patient who was PCR negative immediately after 
the end of treatment relapsed 11 months later. This limited prospective 
study with VL patients suggests that the PCR assay is a highly sensitive
 and specific (99% and 100%, respectively) tool for the diagnosis of VL
. In the majority of patients, it can identify a successful disease 
outcome; however, its translation into the field setting remains a major

PMID: 16002718

TITLE: 18{beta}-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Triggers Curative Th1 Response and Nitric
Oxide Up-Regulation in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis Associated with the
Activation of NF-{kappa}B.

AUTHORS: Anindita Ukil, Aruna Biswas, Tapasi Das, Pijush K Das

AFFILIATION: Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical
Biology, Calcutta, India.

REFERENCE: J Immunol 2005 Jul 175(2):1161-9

The efficacy of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a pentacyclic 
triterpene belonging to the beta-amyrin series of plant origin, was 
evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. GRA is reported to 
have antitumor and immunoregulatory activities, which may be 
attributable in part to the induction of NO. Indeed, an 11-fold increase
 in NO production was observed with 20 muM GRA in mouse peritoneal 
macrophages infected with Leishmania donovani promastigotes. In addition
 to having appreciable inhibitory effects on amastigote multiplication 
within macrophages (IC(50), 4.6 mug/ml), complete elimination of liver 
and spleen parasite burden was achieved by GRA at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day
, given three times, 5 days apart, in a 45-day mouse model of visceral 
leishmaniasis. GRA treatment resulted in reduced levels of IL-10 and IL-
4, but increased levels of IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and inducible NO
 synthase, reflecting a switch of CD4(+) differentiation from Th2 to Th1
. This treatment is likely to activate immunity, thereby imparting 
resistance to reinfection. GRA induced NF-kappaB migration into the 
nucleus of parasite-infected cells and caused a diminishing presence of 
IkappaB in the cytoplasm. The lower level of cytoplasmic IkappaBalpha in
 GRA-treated cells resulted from increased phosphorylation of 
IkappaBalpha and higher activity of IkappaB kinase (IKK). Additional 
experiments demonstrated that GRA does not directly affect IKK activity
. These results suggest that GRA exerts its effects at some level 
upstream of IKK in the signaling pathway and induces the production of 
proinflammatory mediators through a mechanism that, at least in part, 
involves induction of NF-kappaB activation.

PMID: 16007269

TITLE: What about Th1/Th2 in cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine discovery?

AUTHORS: A Campos-Neto

AFFILIATION: The Forsyth Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

REFERENCE: Braz J Med Biol Res 2005 Jul 38(7):979-84

The T helper cell type 1 (Th1) response is essential to resist 
leishmaniasis, whereas the Th2 response favors the disease. However, 
many leishmanial antigens, which stimulate a Th1 immune response during 
the disease or even after the disease is cured, have been shown to have 
no protective action. Paradoxically, antigens associated with an early 
Th2 response have been found to be highly protective if the Th1 response
 to them is generated before infection. Therefore, finding disease-
associated Th2 antigens and inducing a Th1 immune response to them using
 defined vaccination protocols is an interesting unorthodox alternative 
approach to the discovery of a leishmania vaccine.

PMID: 15980336

TITLE: Alteration of fatty acid and sterol metabolism in miltefosine-resistant
Leishmania donovani promastigotes and consequences for drug-membrane

AUTHORS: M Rakotomanga, M Saint-Pierre-Chazalet, P M Loiseau

AFFILIATION: Chimiothérapie Antiparasitaire, UMR 8076 CNRS, Faculté de
Pharmacie, Université Paris XI, F-92290, Chātenay-Malabry, France.

REFERENCE: Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005 Jul 49(7):2677-86

Miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine [HePC]) is the first orally active 
drug approved for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. In order to 
investigate the biochemical modifications occurring in HePC-resistant (
HePC-R) Leishmania donovani promastigotes, taking into account the lipid
 nature of HePC, we investigated their fatty acid and sterol metabolisms
. We found that the content of unsaturated phospholipid alkyl chains was
 lower in HePC-R parasite plasma membranes than in those of the wild 
type, suggesting a lower fluidity of HePC-R parasite membranes. We also 
demonstrated that HePC insertion within an external monolayer was more 
difficult when the proportion of unsaturated phospholipids decreased, 
rendering the HePC interaction with the external monolayer of HePC-R 
parasites more difficult. Furthermore, HePC-R parasite membranes 
displayed a higher content of short alkyl chain fatty acids, suggesting 
a partial inactivation of the fatty acid elongation enzyme system in 
HePC-R parasites. Sterol biosynthesis was found to be modified in HePC-R
 parasites, since the 24-alkylated sterol content was halved in HePC-R 
parasites; however, this modification was not related to HePC 
sensitivity. In conclusion, HePC resistance affects three lipid 
biochemical pathways: fatty acid elongation, the desaturase system 
responsible for fatty acid alkyl chain unsaturation, and the C-24-
alkylation of sterols.

PMID: 15995268

TITLE: Challenges in the management of visceral leishmaniasis.

AUTHORS: Shyam Sundar, Ashok Kumar

AFFILIATION: Professor, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences,
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, (UP), India.
drshyamsundar at hotmail.com.

REFERENCE: Indian Pediatr 2005 Jun 42(6):523-6

PMID: 15928908

TITLE: Leishmaniasis as an opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients:
determinants of relapse and mortality in a collaborative study of 228 episodes
in a Mediterreanean region.

AUTHORS: F Pasquau, J Ena, R Sanchez, J M Cuadrado, C Amador, J Flores, C
Benito, C Redondo, J Lacruz, V Abril, J Onofre, 

AFFILIATION: Department of Internal Medicine-HIV Unit, Marina Baixa Hospital,
Partida de Galandú 5, 03570, Villajoyosa, Alicante, Spain,
pasquau_fra at gva.es.

REFERENCE: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2005 Jun 24(6):411-8

The clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis shares similarities 
with other geographically specific infectious diseases associated with 
AIDS in terms of relapsing course and atypical presentation. However, 
visceral leishmaniasis has not, until now, been included in the AIDS 
case definition. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical 
features and determinants for relapse and case-fatality of visceral 
leishmaniasis in HIV-infected patients from a Spanish Mediterranean area
. A chart review was conducted in 16 hospitals in the autonomous 
communities of Valencia and Murcia (Spain). From 1988 to 2001, a total 
of 228 episodes of visceral leishmaniasis were diagnosed in 155 HIV-
infected patients by the detection of amastigotes in bone marrow 
aspirates or in other tissue samples. Most patients had advanced HIV 
disease, with a median CD4+ lymphocyte cell count of 55 cells x 10(9) l
, and 56% of them had a previous AIDS-indicator disease. The median 
duration of follow-up was 8.4 months. HIV-infected patients with 
visceral leishmaniasis presented with fever (76%), hepatomegaly (77%), 
splenomegaly (78%), and varying degrees of cytopenias. Leishmania was 
detected in atypical sites in 22 (14%) patients. A total of 37 (24%) 
patients had a relapse of visceral leishmaniasis. Female gender was a 
risk factor for relapse, whereas administration of secondary prophylaxis
 for visceral leishmaniasis and a completed therapy for visceral 
leishmaniasis were protective factors against relapse. A total of 86 (54
%) patients died. Independent determinants for survival were CD4+ 
lymphocyte cell count, completed therapy for leishmania, and secondary 
prophylaxis for visceral leishmaniasis. The findings show that, in HIV-
infected patients, visceral leishmaniasis occurs in late stages of HIV 
disease and often has a relapsing course. Secondary prophylaxis reduces 
the risk of relapse. Visceral leishmaniasis in the HIV-infected 
population should be included in the CDC clinical category C for the 
definition of AIDS in the same way that other geographically specific 
opportunistic infections are included.

PMID: 15879084

TITLE: Cutting edge: the SLAM family receptor Ly108 controls T cell and
neutrophil functions.

AUTHORS: Duncan Howie, F Stephen Laroux, Massimo Morra, Abhay R Satoskar, Lucia
E Rosas, William A Faubion, Aimee Julien, Svend Rietdijk, Anthony J Coyle,
Christopher Fraser, Cox Terhorst

AFFILIATION: Division of Immunology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center,
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. duncan.howie at path.ox.ac.uk

REFERENCE: J Immunol 2005 May 174(10):5931-5

Ly108, a glycoprotein of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule 
family of cell surface receptors expressed by T, B, NK, and APCs has 
been shown to have a role in NK cell cytotoxicity and T cell cytokine 
responses. In this study, we describe that CD4(+) T cells from mice with
 a targeted disruption of exons 2 and 3 of Ly108 (Ly108(DeltaE2+3)) 
produce significantly less IL-4 than wild-type CD4(+) cells, as judged 
by in vitro assays and by in vivo responses to cutaneous infection with 
Leishmania mexicana. Surprisingly, neutrophil functions are controlled 
by Ly108. Ly108(DeltaE2+3) mice are highly susceptible to infection with
 Salmonella typhimurium, bactericidal activity of Ly108(DeltaE2+3) 
neutrophils is defective, and their production of IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-
alpha is increased. The aberrant bactericidal activity by Ly108(DeltaE2+
3) neutrophils is a consequence of severely reduced production of 
reactive oxygen species following phagocytosis of bacteria. Thus, Ly108 
serves as a regulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses.

PMID: 15879134

TITLE: Control of infection with Leishmania major in susceptible BALB/c mice
lacking the common gamma-chain for FcR is associated with reduced production of
IL-10 and TGF-beta by parasitized cells.

AUTHORS: Udaikumar M Padigel, Jay P Farrell

AFFILIATION: Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

REFERENCE: J Immunol 2005 May 174(10):6340-5

Previous studies have shown that the in vitro ligation of FcgammaRs with
 IgG-opsonized Leishmania amastigotes promotes IL-10 production by 
macrophages. In addition, infection of either BALB/c mice lacking the 
common gamma-chain of Fc receptors (FcgammaR(-/-)) or mice genetically 
altered to lack circulating Ab (J(H)D) with Leishmania pifanoi results 
in reduced and delayed lesion development and a deficit in the 
recruitment of inflammatory cells into infected lesions. We show in this
 study that FcgammaR(-/-) mice can control infection with Leishmania 
major and totally resolve cutaneous lesions. The ability to eventually 
control infection is not associated with a reduction in lesion 
inflammation or a reduction in the ability of Leishmania to parasitize 
cells through week 6 of infection. The immune response in healing 
FcgammaR(-/-) mice is associated with a reduction in numbers of cells 
producing Th2-type cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, but not an 
increase in numbers of IFN-gamma-producing cells characteristic of a 
dominant Th1-type response. Instead, we observe a reduction in levels of
 IL-10 and TGF-beta within infected lesions, including reduced levels of
 these cytokines within parasitized macrophages. Together, these results
 suggest that uptake of opsonized parasites via FcgammaRs may be a 
strong in vivo stimulus for the production of anti-inflammatory 
cytokines that play a role in susceptibility to infection.

PMID: 15860278

TITLE: Stage-specific antileishmanial activity of an inhibitor of SIR2 histone

AUTHORS: Baptiste Vergnes, Laurent Vanhille, Ali Ouaissi, Denis Sereno

AFFILIATION: IRD UR008 Pathogénie des Trypanosomatidés, Institut de Recherche
pour le Développement, Centre IRD de Montpellier, 911 Av. Agropolis, BP 64501,
34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

REFERENCE: Acta Trop 2005 May 94(2):107-15

Silent information regulator 2 (SIR2) proteins are NAD-dependant 
deacetylases found in organisms ranging from bacteria to human. In 
eukaryotes, these proteins are involved in many biological processes 
including transcriptional repression, metabolism, ageing, or apoptosis. 
Here, we have shown that Sirtinol, a commercially available inhibitor of
 SIR2 deacetylases, significantly inhibits the in vitro proliferation of
 Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner. This
 activity is stage specific since sirtinol did not affect the in vitro 
growth of parasite promastigotes. Growth arrest in amastigotes is 
associated with genomic DNA fragmentation, a process reminiscent of 
apoptosis. Interestingly parasites carrying extra copies of the LmSIR2 
gene were less susceptible to the sirtinol mediated cell death. 
Altogether, these results constitute novel evidences that Leishmania 
SIR2 proteins play a role in the control of the parasite apoptotic 

PMID: 15986599

TITLE: Influence of phospholipid composition on the adjuvanticity and protective
efficacy of liposome-encapsulated Leishmania donovani antigens.

AUTHORS: Tuhina Mazumdar, K Anam, N Ali

AFFILIATION: Infectious Diseases Group, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4,
Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India.

REFERENCE: J Parasitol 2005 Apr 91(2):269-74

In this study, we evaluate the effect of phospholipid on the 
adjuvanicity and protective efficacy of liposome vaccine carriers 
against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a hamster model. Liposomes 
prepared with distearyol derivative of L-alpha-phosphatidyl choline (
DSPC) having liquid crystalline transition temperature (Tc) 54 C were as
 efficient as dipalmitoyl (DPPC) (Tc 41 C) and dimyristoyl (DMPC) (Tc 23
 C) derivatives in their ability to entrap Leishmania donovani membrane 
antigens (LAg) and to potentiate strong antigen-specific antibody 
responses. However, whereas LAg in DPPC and DMPC liposomes stimulated 
inconsistent delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, strong DTH 
was observed with LAg in DSPC liposomes. The heightened adjuvant 
activity of DSPC liposomes corresponded with 95% protection, with almost
 no protectivity with LAg in DPPC and DMPC liposomes, 4 mo after 
challenge with L. donovani. These data demonstrate the superiority of 
DSPC liposomes for formulation of L. donovani vaccine. In addition, they
 demonstrate a correlation of humoral and cell-mediated immunity with 
protection against VL in hamsters.

PMID: 15972797

TITLE: Thermolytic CpG-containing DNA oligonucleotides as potential
immunotherapeutic prodrugs.

AUTHORS: Andrzej Grajkowski, Joao Pedras-Vasconcelos, Vivian Wang, Cristina
Ausín, Sonja Hess, Daniela Verthelyi, Serge L Beaucage

AFFILIATION: Laboratory of Chemistry, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research,
Food and Drug Administration 8800 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

REFERENCE: Nucleic Acids Res 2005  33(11):3550-60

A CpG-containing DNA oligonucleotide functionalized with the 2-(N-formyl
-N-methyl)aminoethyl thiophosphate protecting group (CpG ODN fma1555) 
was prepared from phosphoramidites 1a-d using solid-phase techniques. 
The oligonucleotide behaved as a prodrug by virtue of its conversion to 
the well-studied immunomodulatory CpG ODN 1555 through thermolytic 
cleavage of the 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl thiophosphate protecting
 group. Such a conversion occurred at 37 degrees C with a half-time of 
73 h. The immunostimulatory properties of CpG ODN fma1555 were evaluated
 in two in vivo assays, one of which consisted of mice challenged in the
 ear with live Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes. Local 
intradermal administration of CpG ODN fma1555 was as effective as that 
of CpG ODN 1555 in reducing the size of Leishmania lesions over time. In
 a different infectious model, CpG ODN 1555 prevented the death of 
Tacaribe-infected mice (43% survival) when administered between day 0 
and 3 post infection. Administration of CpG ODN fma1555 three days 
before infection resulted in improved immunoprotection (60-70% survival
). Moreover, co-administration of CpG ODN fma1555 and CpG ODN 1555 in 
this model increased the window for therapeutic treatment against 
Tacaribe virus infection, and thus supports the use of thermolytic 
oligonucleotides as prodrugs in the effective treatment of infectious 

PMID: 15996442

TITLE: Epidemiology of travel-related hospitalization.

AUTHORS: Shmuel Stienlauf, Gad Segal, Yechezkel Sidi, Eli Schwartz

REFERENCE: J Travel Med 2005 May-Jun 12(3):136-41

Background:: Limited information exists on causes of hospitalization in 
patients returning from the tropics, and most is focused on febrile 
diseases. We evaluated all causes of post-travel hospitalization in a 
tertiary care hospital in Israel. Methods:: Demographics, diagnoses, and
 destinations of patients admitted between January 1999 and December 
2003 with a history of recent travel were recorded. Demographics and 
destination of healthy travelers presenting to our pretravel clinic at 
the same period were recorded. Results:: Of 211 patients admitted, 71% 
were males, 8% were immigrants/foreign workers, and febrile diseases 
accounted for 77% of admissions. The most common diagnoses were malaria 
in 54 (26%), unidentified febrile disease in 34 (16%), and dengue fever 
in 27 (13%). New World cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common cause
 of admission among nonfebrile patients (18 [9%]). Diarrheal diseases 
accounted for only 11% of admissions. Regarding destination, 101 (48%) 
patients had been to Asia, 71 (34%) to Africa, and 43 (20%) to the 
Americas. Of our healthy traveler population, 59% traveled to Asia, 20% 
to Africa, and 20% to the Americas. Travel to Africa carried the highest
 risk of being hospitalized (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.16-2.97; p = .01). Most (
59%) patients returning from Africa had malaria. The principal health 
problem originating in Asia was dengue fever (27%), and from Latin 
America, cutaneous leishmaniasis (48%). Males comprised 71% of the 
patients, and 59% of the healthy traveler population (p < .0001). 
Males were more likely to acquire malaria (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.13-4.09; p
 = .02) and leishmaniasis (OR 3.41, 95% CI 0.97-11.89; p = .05). 
Conclusions:: Febrile diseases were the most common cause for 
hospitalization, with malaria, unidentified febrile diseases, and dengue
 fever being the most common. Diseases were destination related; travel 
to Africa was associated with a higher rate of hospitalization. Malaria 
and cutaneous leishmaniasis had a substantially male predominance, 
probably due to risk-taking behavior.


 The following references are revised files and are brought to you in accordance
to license agreement with the NLM.


PMID: 13528097

TITLE: [Study of 19 biopsies of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico.]


REFERENCE: Rev Latinoam Anat Patol 1957 Jul-Dec 1(2):145-50

REQUEST: [ leishmania ]

(12 articles match this request. 7 articles matching other requests removed)

PMID: 15964042

TITLE: Modulation of Leishmania donovani infection and cell viability by
testosterone in bone marrow-derived macrophages: Signaling via surface binding

AUTHORS: Limin Liu, W Peter M Benten, Lianyun Wang, Xiangfang Hao, Qiaoli Li,
Huaping Zhang, Dongxing Guo, Yajing Wang, Frank Wunderlich, Zhongdong Qiao

AFFILIATION: Medical School, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Huashanlu 1954,
200030 Shanghai, PR China.

REFERENCE: Steroids 2005 Aug 70(9):604-14

Androgens can increase susceptibility toward numerous parasitic 
infections as well as modulate apoptosis of immune cells. According to 
the current view, androgens mediate immune cell activities not only 
through classical intracellular androgen receptors (AR), but also 
through membrane receptors on the cell surface. Here, using murine bone 
marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), we examined the influence of 
testosterone on Leishmania donovani infection and cell viability in 
vitro as well as the possible mechanisms. Our data demonstrated that 
testosterone directly increased intramacrophage infection by L. donovani
. In addition, testosterone decreased cell viability by way of apoptosis
, accompanied by increased Fas, FasL, and Caspase-8 expression. However
, these effects of testosterone could not be associated with the 
classical AR in BMMs since AR was not detectable using different 
experimental techniques. Instead, it was found that testosterone could 
bind to the surface of BMMs by the use of an impermeable testosterone-
BSA-FITC in confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. 
Collectively, our data indicated that the influence of testosterone on L
. donovani infection and viability of BMMs was mediated through the 
binding sites of testosterone on cell surfaces, which provided a novel 
mode of direct action of testosterone on AR-free BMMs.

PMID: 15998317

TITLE: Unconventional secretory routes: direct protein export across the plasma
membrane of Mammalian cells.

AUTHORS: Walter Nickel

AFFILIATION: Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center (BZH), Im Neuenheimer
Feld 328, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, walter.nickel at urz.uni-heidelberg.de.

REFERENCE: Traffic 2005 Aug 6(8):607-14

The vast majority of extracellular proteins are exported from mammalian 
cells by the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-dependent secretory pathway. 
For poorly understood reasons, however, a heterogenous group of 
extracellular proteins has been discovered that does not make use of 
signal peptide-dependent secretory transport. Both the release 
mechanisms and the molecular identity of the secretory machines involved
 have remained elusive. Recent studies now have established a subgroup 
of unconventional secretory proteins capable of translocating from the 
cytoplasm directly across the plasma membrane to get access to the 
exterior of eukaryotic cells. This review aims to focus on a detailed 
comparison of the subcellular site of membrane translocation of various 
unconventional secretory proteins such as the proangiogenic molecule 
fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and Leishmania hydrophilic acylated 
surface protein B (HASP B). A potential link between membrane 
translocation and quality control as an integral part of unconventional 
secretory processes is discussed.

PMID: 15936761

TITLE: Characterisation of a Leishmania mexicana knockout lacking guanosine
diphosphate-mannose pyrophosphorylase.

AUTHORS: James Stewart, Joan Curtis, Timothy P Spurck, Thomas Ilg, Attila
Garami, Tracey Baldwin, Nathalie Courret, Geoffrey I McFadden, Antony Davis,
Emanuela Handman

AFFILIATION: The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.

REFERENCE: Int J Parasitol 2005 Jul 35(8):861-73

In eukaryotes, the enzyme GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GDP-MP) is 
essential for the formation of GDP-mannose, the donor of activated 
mannose for all glycosylation reactions. Unlike other eukaryotes, where 
deletion of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase is lethal, deletion of this 
gene in Leishmania mexicana has no effect on viability, but leads to the
 generation of avirulent parasites. In this study, we show that the null
 mutants have a perturbed morphology and cytokinesis, retarded growth 
and increased adherence to the substratum where they form large colonies
. The null mutants attach avidly to mouse macrophages, but unlike the 
wild type organisms, they do not bind to the complement receptor 3 and 
are slow to induce phagocytosis. Once internalised, they localise to the
 phagolysosome, but in contrast to wild type organisms which transform 
into the intracellular amastigote and establish in the macrophage, they 
are cleared by 24h in culture and by 5h in vivo. The null mutants are 
hypersensitive to human but not mouse complement and to temperature and 
acidic pH. Surprisingly, in view of the lack of several known host-
protective antigens, injection of the mutant parasites into BALB/c mice 
confers significant and long lasting protection against infection, 
suggesting that these temperature sensitive mutants are an attractive 
candidate for a live attenuated vaccine.

PMID: 16002669

TITLE: Phenotype and homing of CD4 tumor-specific T cells is modulated by tumor

AUTHORS: Fabio Benigni, Valérie S Zimmermann, Stephanie Hugues, Stefano
Caserta, Veronica Basso, Laura Rivino, Elizabeth Ingulli, Laurent Malherbe,
Nicolas Glaichenhaus, Anna Mondino

AFFILIATION: Cancer Immunotherapy and Gene Therapy Program, S. Raffaele
Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

REFERENCE: J Immunol 2005 Jul 175(2):739-48

Technical difficulties in tracking endogenous CD4 T lymphocytes have 
limited the characterization of tumor-specific CD4 T cell responses. 
Using fluorescent MHC class II/peptide multimers, we defined the fate of
 endogenous Leishmania receptor for activated C kinase (LACK)-specific 
CD4 T cells in mice bearing LACK-expressing TS/A tumors. LACK-specific 
CD44(high)CD62L(low) CD4 T cells accumulated in the draining lymph nodes
 and had characteristics of effector cells, secreting IL-2 and IFN-gamma
 upon Ag restimulation. Increased frequencies of CD44(high)CD62L(low) 
LACK-experienced cells were also detected in the spleen, lung, liver, 
and tumor itself, but not in nondraining lymph nodes, where the cells 
maintained a naive phenotype. The absence of systemic redistribution of 
LACK-specific memory T cells correlated with the presence of tumor. 
Indeed, LACK-specific CD4 T cells with central memory features (IL-2(+)
IFN-gamma(-)CD44(high)CD62L(high) cells) accumulated in all peripheral 
lymph nodes of mice immunized with LACK-pulsed dendritic cells and after
 tumor resection. Together, our data demonstrate that although tumor-
specific CD4 effector T cells producing IFN-gamma are continuously 
generated in the presence of tumor, central memory CD4 T cells 
accumulate only after tumor resection. Thus, the continuous stimulation 
of tumor-specific CD4 T cells in tumor-bearing mice appears to hinder 
the systemic accumulation of central memory CD4 T lymphocytes.

PMID: 15922377

TITLE: Leishmanicidal cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides from Astragalus

AUTHORS: Meltem Ozipek, Ali A Dönmez, Ihsan Caliş, Reto Brun, Peter Rüedi,
Deniz Tasdemir

AFFILIATION: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe
University, Ankara, Turkey. meltemozipek at yahoo.com

REFERENCE: Phytochemistry 2005 May 66(10):1168-73

Two new cycloartane-type glycosides oleifoliosides A (1) and B (2) were 
isolated from the lower stem parts of Astragalus oleifolius. Their 
structures were identified as 3-O-[beta-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-alpha-
pentahydroxycycloartane and 3-O-[beta-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-alpha-
pentahydroxycycloartane, respectively, by means of spectroscopic methods
 (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-MS). Three known cycloartane glycosides 
cyclocanthoside E (3), astragaloside II (4) and astragaloside IV (5) 
were also isolated and characterized. All five compounds were evaluated 
for in vitro trypanocidal, leishmanicidal and antiplasmodial activities 
as well as their cytotoxic potential on primary mammalian (L6) cells. 
Except for the compound 5, all compounds showed notable growth 
inhibitory activity against Leishmania donovani with IC50 values ranging
 from 13.2 to 21.3 microg/ml. Only weak activity against Trypanosoma 
brucei rhodesiense was observed with the known compounds astragaloside 
II (4, IC50 66.6 microg/ml) and cyclocanthoside E (3, IC50 85.2 microg/
ml), while all compounds were inactive against Trypanosoma cruzi and 
Plasmodium falciparum. None of the compounds were toxic to mammalian 
cells (IC50's > 90 microg/ml). This is the first report of 
leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity of cycloartane-type triterpene 

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