[leish-l] Fwd: Articles found by RefScout 06/07/05 - 27/2005
jeffreyj at usp.br
jeffreyj at usp.br
Sat Jul 9 20:39:21 BRT 2005
Date: Wed, 6 Jul 2005 03:13:52
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This is RefScout-Newsletter 27/2005.
REQUEST: [ leishmaniasis ]
(15 articles match this request)
TITLE: Antileishmanial activity of HIV protease inhibitors.
AUTHORS: Dianella Savoia, Tiziano Allice, Pier-Angelo Tovo
AFFILIATION: Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Biological
Sciences, University of Torino at S. Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 10043 Orbassano,
REFERENCE: Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005 Jul 26(1):92-4
The proteasomes of some protozoa are possible targets for chemotherapy.
Leishmaniasis is a major health problem in human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV) co-infected subjects. Two HIV protease inhibitors (PI), indinavir
and saquinavir, have been shown to block proteasome functions; we
therefore investigated their effects on the growth of two Leishmania spp
. (Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum). After 24h of treatment,
both drugs exhibited a dose-dependent antileishmanial activity, with 50
% lethal dose (LD(50)) values of, respectively, 8.3muM and 7muM on L.
major; minor activity was observed on L. infantum. These results add new
in vitro insights into the wide-spectrum efficacy of PI and suggest
studying their action on amastigote forms of leishmania within
macrophages in order to validate their potential contribution against
opportunistic infections in treated seropositive patients.
TITLE: Clinical and histopathological features of zoonotic cutaneous
leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia.
AUTHORS: Mae Uthman, Aa Satir, Ks Tabbara
AFFILIATION: Department of Dermatology, Solmaniya Medical Center, Manama,
REFERENCE: J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2005 Jul 19(4):431-6
Background Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused by Leishmania
major is a growing public health problem and endemic in many parts of
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The vector is Phlebotomus papatasi and the
animal reservoirs are mainly desert rodents. Methods In this prospective
study, the clinical and histopathological features of ZCL in 120
patients are described and classified. The majority of these patients (n
= 84) were non-Saudi expatriate workers who suffered mostly from
multiple and severely inflamed nodulo-ulcerative lesions on the exposed
parts of the body. Saudi patients were mainly children (n = 21) with few
(1-3) lesions on their limbs or sometimes unique erysipeloid facial
lesions. Results Histopathological grouping of ZCL lesions showed four
types of granulomatous reactions based on the predominant types of
inflammatory cells, presence or absence of necrosis and ranking of
parasitic index. Conclusion A possible correlation between
histopathologic evolution of ZCL lesions and the immune status of the
host is discussed.
TITLE: Antagonizing deactivating cytokines to enhance host defense and
chemotherapy in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.
AUTHORS: Henry W Murray, Kathleen C Flanders, Debra D Donaldson, Joseph P Sypek,
Philip J Gotwals, Jianguo Liu, Xiaojing Ma
AFFILIATION: Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell
University, Box 136, 1300 York Ave., New York, New York 10021, USA.
hwmurray at med.cornell.edu
REFERENCE: Infect Immun 2005 Jul 73(7):3903-11
In experimental visceral leishmaniasis, inhibition of interleukin 10 (IL
-10) signaling enhances Th1-cell-associated responses, promoting gamma
interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion, granuloma assembly, macrophage
activation with substantial liver parasite killing, and synergy with
pentavalent antimony (Sb) chemotherapy. To determine if inhibiting other
suppressive cytokines has similar therapeutic potential, Leishmania
donovani-infected BALB/c mice were injected with anti-IL-4 monoclonal
antibody or receptor fusion antagonists of IL-13 or transforming growth
factor beta (TGF-beta). Targeting IL-13 or TGF-beta enabled inhibition
of L. donovani replication but little parasite killing; anti-IL-4 had no
effect. None of the three antagonists promoted IFN-gamma production,
granuloma maturation, or Sb efficacy. Excess IL-13 and TGF-beta
exacerbated liver infection; however, effects were transient. Among IL-
10, IL-4, IL-13, and TGF-beta, cytokines capable of disabling Th1-cell
mechanisms (including those which support chemotherapy), IL-10 appears
to be the appropriate target for therapeutic inhibition in visceral L.
TITLE: Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis on lymphedema following
AUTHORS: Giti Sadeghian, Fariba Iraji, Mohammad Ali Nilfroushzadeh
REFERENCE: Int J Dermatol 2005 Jul 44(7):610-1
TITLE: Equine infection with Leishmania in Portugal.
AUTHORS: N RolÃ£o, M J Martins, A JoÃ£o, L Campino
AFFILIATION: Unidade de Leishmanioses, Centro MalÃ¡ria DoenÃ§as Tropicais,
Instituto Higiene Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova Lisboa, R. da Junqueira,
96, 1349-008 Lisboa, Portugal.
REFERENCE: Parasite 2005 Jun 12(2):183-6
The present report describes the first case of equine leishmaniasis in
Portugal. Leishmania infection was detected in one animal, which
presented an ulcerated skin lesion. Diagnosis was based on serology by
CIE, and parasite DNA detection by real-time PCR using a probe specific
for L. infantum. This finding requests further leishmaniasis equine
surveys in order to clarify the role of the horse as reservoir host in
european endemic areas.
TITLE: Refractoriness to the treatment of sodium stibogluconate in Indian
kala-azar field isolates persist in in vitro and in vivo experimental models.
AUTHORS: Anuradha Dube, Nasib Singh, Shyam Sundar, Neeloo Singh
AFFILIATION: Division of Parasitology, Central Drug Research Institute, Post Box
No. 173, Lucknow, 226 001, India, anuradha_dube at hotmail.com.
REFERENCE: Parasitol Res 2005 Jun 96(4):216-23
Ever since their discovery about 60 years ago as therapeutic agent for
visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar, pentavalent antimonials (Sb(v
)) have remained the first line treatment of choice all over the world
including India. But recently, the number of kala-azar patients
unresponsive to sodium stibogluconate (SSG) therapy, is steadily
increasing in India. In this study, three clinical isolates, of which
two were from SSG unresponsive and one from SSG responsive patients were
evaluated for their infectivity and for their chemotherapeutic
responses in vitro (macrophage-amastigote system) and in vivo (in
hamsters). Persistence of SSG resistance was also checked by repeated
passages in vitro as well as in vivo. The drug resistant strains (2039
and 2041) did not respond to SSG therapy both in vitro as well as in
vivo but strains 2001 and Dd8 showed full sensitivity to SSG treatment.
All the four strains responded well to amphotericin B and miltefosine
treatment both in macrophages and in hamsters. The specific
chemotherapeutic responses of all the strains to SSG were consistently
persistent after repeated passages in cultures and in vivo, which
indicates that these isolates are truly refractory to SSG treatment in
field conditions. Two isolates were also transfected with green
fluorescent protein (GFP) for the development of in vitro assay for
studying antileishmanial activities of new and reference drugs in
macrophages by flow cytometry.
TITLE: Successful treatment of antifungal- and cryotherapy-resistant
subcutaneous hyalohyphomycosis in an immunocompetent case with topical 5%
AUTHORS: Zulal Erbagci, A Almila Tuncel, Suna Erkilic, Yasemin Zer
AFFILIATION: Departments of Dermatology, Gaziantep University Medical Faculty,
Gazimuhtarpasa Bulvari. Gecit 1. No: 1/5, 27090, Gaziantep, Turkey,
zerbagci at yahoo.com.
REFERENCE: Mycopathologia 2005 Jun 159(4):521-6
Hyalohyphomycosis is an unusual opportunistic mycotic infection where
the tissue morphology of the causative organism is mycelial. Etiological
agents, which are not responsible for the otherwise-named infections
like aspergillosis, are the species of non-dematiaceous hyaline
hyphomycetes including Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Acremonium (formerly
known Cephalosporium), Beauveria, Fusarium, and Scopulariopsis. Several
cases of Acremonium infection have been described in immunocompromised
patients; however it can cause invasive disease in an immunocompetent
person very rarely. Optimum therapy of Acremonium infection is unclear
because of the limited number of reported cases and conflicting results
of therapies. Imiquimod, an imidazoquinoline with potent antiviral,
antitumor and immunoregulatory properties, is currently approved for the
topical treatment of external anogenital warts and actinic keratosis.
Imiquimod has also been found to be effective for other virus-associated
dermatologic lesions, including common and flat warts, molluscum
contagiosum, and herpes simplex virus type-2 as well as for some cases
of cutaneous leishmaniasis. We report herein, for the first time, a case
of unusually recalcitrant hyalohyphomycosis of the face due to
Acremonium strictum successfully treated with topical 5% imiquimod in an
immunocompetent patient, who had failed to respond to various
antifungals, including itraconazole, and cryotherapy.
TITLE: [Therapeutic options for visceral leishmaniasis.]
AUTHORS: P Desjeux
REFERENCE: Med Mal Infect 2005 Jun 35 Suppl 2():S74-6
TITLE: [Nasal leishmaniasis: a case report]
AUTHORS: J-Fr Vellin, M Russier, G Mougeot, J-L Kemeny, L Gilain
AFFILIATION: Service d'ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-Faciale, Centre Hospitalier
Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 69, 63003, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 1.
REFERENCE: Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 2005 Apr 122(2):100-4
OBJECTIVE: To report a nasal leishmaniasis diagnosed by septal
perforation biopsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report a case of septal
perforation with crusty rhinosinusitis and nasal vestibulitis in a 54-
year-old woman with cirrhosis. RESULTS: Mucocartilaginous biopsy
revealed a mucosal leishmaniasis. Biological and radiologic findings
were normal. Clinical follow-up with anti-parasitical treatment showed a
regression of the patient's muco-cutaneous lesion and regression of her
hepatic insufficiency. CONCLUSION: Biopsy of septal perforation is a
useful diagnostic tool, advocated for differentiate infectious,
neoplasic and inflammatory pathology. Leishmaniasis may be evoked in
TITLE: Influence of phospholipid composition on the adjuvanticity and protective
efficacy of liposome-encapsulated Leishmania donovani antigens.
AUTHORS: Tuhina Mazumdar, K Anam, N Ali
AFFILIATION: Infectious Diseases Group, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4,
Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India.
REFERENCE: J Parasitol 2005 Apr 91(2):269-74
In this study, we evaluate the effect of phospholipid on the
adjuvanicity and protective efficacy of liposome vaccine carriers
against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a hamster model. Liposomes
prepared with distearyol derivative of L-alpha-phosphatidyl choline (
DSPC) having liquid crystalline transition temperature (Tc) 54 C were as
efficient as dipalmitoyl (DPPC) (Tc 41 C) and dimyristoyl (DMPC) (Tc 23
C) derivatives in their ability to entrap Leishmania donovani membrane
antigens (LAg) and to potentiate strong antigen-specific antibody
responses. However, whereas LAg in DPPC and DMPC liposomes stimulated
inconsistent delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, strong DTH
was observed with LAg in DSPC liposomes. The heightened adjuvant
activity of DSPC liposomes corresponded with 95% protection, with almost
no protectivity with LAg in DPPC and DMPC liposomes, 4 mo after
challenge with L. donovani. These data demonstrate the superiority of
DSPC liposomes for formulation of L. donovani vaccine. In addition, they
demonstrate a correlation of humoral and cell-mediated immunity with
protection against VL in hamsters.
TITLE: [Use of homeopathic drugs for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis]
REFERENCE: Med Parazitol (Mosk) 2005 Apr-Jun (2):42-4
TITLE: Developments in the treatment of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis.
AUTHORS: Piero Olliaro, Janis Lazdins, Felipe Guhl
AFFILIATION: UNDP/World Bank, World Health Organisation Special Programme for
Research & Training in Tropical Diseases, TDR, Geneva, Switzerland, Tel: +41 22
791 374; Fax: +41 22 791 4774;, E-mail: olliarop at who.int.
REFERENCE: Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2002 May 7(1):61-7
The leishmaniases and trypanosomiases are diseases caused by related
parasites belonging to the kinetoplastidae family. They share common
biological traits, which are comparatively better known than for other
parasites, and which would favour the identification of common targets.
Yet, very few new drugs are on the horizon and treatment relies on old,
often toxic and ineffective drugs. Miltefosine may soon become the first
oral drug registered for Leishmaniasis. Other compounds in clinical
trials are paromomycin, sitamquine and lipid formulations of
amphotericin B. For African trypanosomiasis old drugs primarily
indicated for Chagas disease are being considered (nifurtimox, megazole
). Earlier projects are berenil, bisamidines and triazines for African
trypanosomiasis, and novel azoles and cruzipain inhibitors for Chagas
The following references are revised files and are brought to you in accordance
to license agreement with the NLM.
TITLE: Involvement of ICOS-B7RP-1 costimulatory pathway in the regulation of
immune responses to Leishmania major and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis
AUTHORS: Yasushi Miyahira, Hisaya Akiba, Shu-Hei Ogawa, Tomohiro Ishi, Shiho
Watanabe, Seiki Kobayashi, Tsutomu Takeuchi, Takashi Aoki, Katsunari Tezuka,
Ryo Abe, Ko Okumura, Hideo Yagita, Naohiro Watanabe
AFFILIATION: Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Juntendo
University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8421, Tokyo, Japan.
REFERENCE: Immunol Lett 2003 Oct 89(2-3):193-9
The ICOS-B7RP-1-mediated T cell costimulatory pathway has been
implicated crucial for T cell activation and differentiation. In this
study, we investigated the role of this costimulation in the regulation
of immune responses to parasitic infections by using blocking antibody
against B7RP-1 as well as ICOS-deficient mice. The administration of
anti-B7RP-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly suppressed the
footpad swelling in susceptible BALB/c mice upon Leishmania major
infection. The observation was consistent not only with the significant
suppression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 secretion from lymph node cells,
which were derived from L. major-infected mice, but also with the
significant reduction of total serum IgE and IgG(1) in anti-B7RP-1 mAb-
treated BALB/c mice. Infection of ICOS-deficient mice with L. major also
suggested the impaired Th2 immune responses in the absence of this
costimulation. The immunological function of ICOS-B7RP-1 costimulatory
pathway in infection was further confirmed by infecting anti-B7RP-1 mAb-
treated wild type or ICOS-deficient mice with Nippostrongylus
brasiliensis. The characteristic elevation of total serum IgE and
eosinophilia upon N. brasiliensis infection was suppressed by blocking
this costimulation. Moreover, the protection to N. brasiliensis adult
worms was suppressed in anti-B7RP-1 mAb-treated wild type or ICOS-
deficient mice. These results suggest the crucial role of this
costimulatory pathway in the regulation of Th2-biased T cell
differentiation and in host immune responses against L. major and N.
TITLE: Cutting edge: inducible costimulator protein regulates both Th1 and Th2
responses to cutaneous leishmaniasis.
AUTHORS: Rebecca J Greenwald, Alexander J McAdam, Diane Van der Woude, Abhay R
Satoskar, Arlene H Sharpe
AFFILIATION: Immunology Research Division, Department of Pathology, Brigham and
Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
REFERENCE: J Immunol 2002 Feb 168(3):991-5
The CD28 family member inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) has an
important role in T cell differentiation and Ig class switching. To
investigate the role of ICOS in vivo, ICOS-/- mice were infected s.c.
with Leishmania mexicana. While wild-type mice developed large,
cutaneous lesions, the growth of lesions and tissue histopathology was
significantly delayed in ICOS-/- mice. ICOS-/- mice exhibited marked
decreases in both Th1 and Th2 cytokine production and profound defects
in L. mexicana-specific Ig isotype class switching to IgG1 and IgG2a and
reduced total IgE levels. Our findings indicate that ICOS is a key
regulator of both Th1 and Th2 responses and has a role in controlling
cutaneous L. mexicana infection.
TITLE: [CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS.]
AUTHORS: E H HERMANS
REFERENCE: Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1963 Oct 43():821-9
REQUEST: [ leishmania ]
(15 articles match this request. 8 articles matching other requests removed)
TITLE: Comparison of three assays for the evaluation of specific cellular
immunity to Leishmania infantum in dogs.
AUTHORS: Hugo FernÃ¡ndez-Bellon, Laia Solano-Gallego, AlhelÃ RodrÃguez, Victor
Pmg Rutten, Aad Hoek, Antonio Ramis, Jordi Alberola, LluÃs Ferrer
AFFILIATION: Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat AutÃ²noma
de Barcelona, Spain.
REFERENCE: Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2005 Aug 107(1-2):163-9
Cellular immune response to Leishmania plays a key role in canine
leishmaniosis. However, there are few assays to evaluate this response
in the dog. Here, we evaluated and compared three assays of specific
cellular immune response to Leishmania infantum in dogs: the leishmanin
skin test (LST), lymphocyte proliferation assay (LPA) and IFN-gamma
cytopathic effect inhibition bioassay (IFNB). Fifty-six healthy dogs
from an endemic area for leishmaniosis on the island of Mallorca were
studied. In all, 37 dogs showed a positive LST and 32 a positive IFNB,
24 were positive for both assays. The 17 dogs positive for LPA also gave
positive results for either LST or IFNB, or both. These findings
indicate that although LST is the method of choice, IFNB is a
complementary test. Therefore, both assays should be performed and
analyzed jointly. In comparison with LST and IFNB, LPA is much less
sensitive, and yields many false negative results.
TITLE: Binding affinity and capacity of putative adaptor-mediated sorting of a
Type I membrane protein in Leishmania mexicana.
AUTHORS: Frank Weise, Lutz Thilo, Markus Engstler, Martin Wiese, Isabel Benzel,
Christina KÃ¼hn, Hans-JÃ¶rg BÃ¼hring, Peter Overath
AFFILIATION: Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Biologie, Abteilung Membranbiochemie,
D-72076 TÃ¼bingen, Germany.
REFERENCE: Mol Biochem Parasitol 2005 Aug 142(2):203-11
The membrane-bound acid phosphatase (MBAP), a Type I membrane protein
predominantly associated with endosomal/lysosomal structures of
Leishmania mexicana promastigotes, contains motifs in its cytosolic COOH
-terminal tail (-MEVWRRYMKFKNKQSEAIIV-COOH) akin to tyrosine- and di-
leucine-based sorting signals in multicellular organisms. Here, we first
show that the COOH-terminal residues IIV of MBAP, but not the Y-residue
, are required for endosomal targeting, suggesting specific binding to
an adaptor complex at the cell surface. We then determine whether
specific binding can be saturated by analysing the efficiency of
endosomal targeting for increasing numbers of MBAP molecules per cell.
The ratio of the steady-state abundance of wild-type MBAP on the cell
surface to MBAP on endosomes increases until the distribution is no
longer different from that observed for a mutant MBAP which lacks the
IIV-motif or for a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored form, both of
which are distributed according to bulk membrane flow. A quantitative
analysis of these in vivo results indicates specific binding to a
putative adaptor complex with an affinity of about 10(-4)M to 50,000
sorting sites on the cell surface.
TITLE: Cloning and expression analysis of two novel paraflagellar rod domain
genes found in Trypanosoma cruzi.
AUTHORS: April K Clark, Gennadiy Kovtunovych, Sachin Kandlikar, Shailesh Lal,
Gabrielle A Stryker
AFFILIATION: Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester,
MI, 48309-4401, USA, gstryker at oakland.edu.
REFERENCE: Parasitol Res 2005 Jul 96(5):312-20
The eukaryotic flagellum is one of the most complex macromolecular
structures found in cells, containing more than 250 proteins. One unique
structure in the flagella of trypanomastids is the paraflagellar rod (
PFR). The PFR constitutes a lattice of cytoskeletal filaments that lies
alongside the axoneme in the flagella. This unique and complex structure
is critical for cell motility, though little is known about its
molecular assembly or its role in the lifecycle of trypanosomatids.
These proteins are of particular importance in Trypanosoma cruzi, as
purified or recombinant PFR proteins have been demonstrated to be
immunogenic, protecting mice from a lethal challenge with the parasite.
We have searched the T. cruzi databases and discovered two novel genes
containing PFR domains. Both these genes are transcribed in vivo and are
significantly larger than the previously described PFR genes identified
in T. cruzi (>2 Kb). Real-time PCR was used to examine the relative
expression levels of six PFR genes, including the two we describe here,
in all three stages of T. cruzi's lifecycle. Database searches have
further provided EST and genomic sequence support for the presence of
these genes in two other pathogenic trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma brucei
and Leishmania spp. One of these genes, designated PFR5 contains a
carboxy terminal SH3 domain not previously seen in PFR family genes. We
propose that this proline-binding SH3 domain may play an important role
in the assembly of the PFR.
TITLE: The molecular characterization of clinical isolates from Indian Kala-azar
patients by MLEE and RAPD-PCR.
AUTHORS: Madhumita Manna, Hemanta Kumar Majumder, Shyam Sundar, Amar Nath
AFFILIATION: Leishmania Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology,
Jadavpur, Kolkata, India.
REFERENCE: Med Sci Monit 2005 Jul 11(7):BR220-227
Background: Kala-azar is a serious health problem in India. The
situation has worsened further due to the occurrence of cases
unresponsive to antimonials. About 30-50% patients do not respond to the
prevailing regimen of antimonials. The etiological agent for Indian
kala-azar has long been known to be Leishmania donovani. Recently, in a
somewhat startling report, it was claimed that L. Tropica causes nearly
25% of current kala-azar cases in India. It was also suggested that this
might be in some way related to the unresponsiveness to pentavalent
antimonials in the field. Material/Methods: Two independent molecular
characterization techniques, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE)
and RAPD-PCR, were employed to analyze 15 clinical isolates from
confirmed Indian kala-azar patients collected from the eastern part of
the country over a period of nearly 20 years. The collection included
six Sb(5+)-unresponsive and one PKDL case. Results: Our observations
strongly suggest that all the clinical isolates, including the antimony
(Sb(5+))-unresponsive and PKDL ones, we studied were identical to the
WHO reference strain (DD8) for Leishmania donovani by both the above
methods and no strain variation might have occurred in two major
epidemic and inter-epidemic periods. We also observed that none of the
Sb(5+)-unresponsive stains we analyzed was related to L. Tropica.
Conclusions: We conclude that L. Donovani may be the causal agent for
Indian kala-azar and that L. Tropica is most likely not an etiological
agent for Indian Kala-azar cases that are unresponsive to antimonials.
TITLE: [Leishmania transmission to children in southern france.]
AUTHORS: P Minodier, P Blanc, G NoÃ«l, N Galon, J-M Garnier
AFFILIATION: Urgences PÃ©diatriques, CHU Nord, Chemin des Bourrelly, 13915
Marseille Cedex 20, France.
REFERENCE: Med Mal Infect 2005 Jun 35 Suppl 2():S114-6
TITLE: A sensitive flow cytometric methodology for studying the binding of L.
chagasi to canine peritoneal macrophages.
AUTHORS: Ricardo GonÃ§alves, Etel R Vieira, Maria N Melo, Kenneth J Gollob,
David M Mosser, Wagner L Tafuri
AFFILIATION: Departamento de Patologia Geral, Instituto de CiÃªncias BiolÃ³gicas
(ICB), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil. wagner at icb.ufmg.br.
REFERENCE: BMC Infect Dis 2005 May 5(1):39
BACKGROUND: The Leishmania promastigote-macrophage interaction occurs
through the association of multiple receptors on the biological membrane
surfaces. The success of the parasite infection is dramatically
dependent on this early interaction in the vertebrate host, which
permits or not the development of the disease. In this study we propose
a novel methodology using flow cytometry to study this interaction, and
compare it with a previously described "in vitro" binding
assay. METHODS: To study parasite-macrophage interaction, peritoneal
macrophages were obtained from 4 dogs and adjusted to 3 x 106 cells/mL.
Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi parasites (stationary-phase) were
adjusted to 5 x 107 cells/mL. The interaction between CFSE-stained
Leishmania chagasi and canine peritoneal macrophages was performed in
polypropylene tubes to avoid macrophage adhesion. We carried out assays
in the presence or absence of normal serum or in the presence of a final
concentration of 5% of C5 deficient (serum from AKR/J mice) mouse serum
. Then, the number of infected macrophages was counted in an optical
microscope, as well as by flow citometry. Macrophages obtained were
stained with anti-CR3 (CD11b/CD18) antibodies and analyzed by flow
citometry. RESULTS: Our results have shown that the interaction between
Leishmania and macrophages can be measured by flow cytometry using the
fluorescent dye CFSE to identify the Leishmania, and measuring
simultaneously the expression of an important integrin involved in this
interaction: the CD11b/CD18 (CR3 or Mac-1) beta2 integrin. CONCLUSION:
Flow cytometry offers rapid, reliable and sensitive measurements of
single cell interactions with Leishmania in unstained or phenotypically
defined cell populations following staining with one or more
TITLE: Detection of species-specific antibody response of humans and mice bitten
by sand flies.
AUTHORS: I Rohousova, S Ozensoy, Y Ozbel, P Volf
AFFILIATION: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University,
Vinicna 7, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic. rohousova at seznam.cz
REFERENCE: Parasitology 2005 May 130(Pt 5):493-9
Sand fly saliva plays an important role in Leishmania transmission. We
characterized the host antibody response to saliva from 3 sand fly
species. Specific IgG was observed in sera from experimentally bitten
mice as well as in sera from individuals living in the endemic area of
Leishmania tropica in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Sera of Sanliurfa inhabitants
showed high IgG levels against saliva of Phlebotomus sergenti and P.
papatasi, the 2 most abundant sand fly species in this area, but did not
react with saliva of the New World sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis.
Patients with active Le. tropica lesions possessed significantly higher
anti-P. sergenti IgG levels than the healthy individuals from the same
place while anti-P. papatasi IgG levels were equal in both groups. Major
protein bands in P. papatasi and P. sergenti saliva reacted with both,
human and mice sera; in P. papatasi, however, mouse IgG recognized
preferentially the 42 kDa protein band while the human IgG reacted
strongly with the 30 kDa band. Our data suggest that the antibody
response to sand fly saliva could be used for monitoring the exposure of
humans and other hosts to sand flies and might be used as a marker of
risks for Leishmania transmission in endemic areas.
REQUEST: [ sand fly ]
(1 article matches this request. 1 article matching other requests removed)
REQUEST: [ sandfly ]
(0 articles match this request)
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